By Jean Lilensten
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The helicity of the involved magnetic fields is generally believed to hold an important key to the onset of solar eruptions such as flares and CMEs. , 2002): Hr = 2 A B dV V with A the magnetic vector potential with a known longitudinal component (it is one of the dependent variables). A plot of the evolution in time of the total amount of relative helicity in the simulation volume is given in Fig. 2. Values for the total amount of relative helicity at the onset of the dramatic rise of the streamer and at the moment of flux rope formation are indicated with the +-signs and ×-signs in Fig.
Coronal holes, particularly during solar activity minimum, are associated with high-speed solar wind streams and recurring geomagnetic disturbances, making them extremely useful for predicting recurrent geomagnetic disturbances. For many years, forecasters have relied on images taken in the infrared He 1083 nm line observed at the Kitt Peak Observatory. Coronal holes are not as striking in these images, and a coronal hole “expert” determines the location of the holes and sends this information to forecasters at NOAA/SEC.
The scaling of the gradual events, on the other hand, showed no similarities to the simple modeling. In our simulation, all the quantities under investigation showed more or less constant values as a function of radius, as a result of the interplay between geometry and time dependence of the source. On the other hand, we did not accurately model the non-linear coupling of the particles to the magnetic fluctuations responsible for their scattering in the IP medium (Ng et al. 2003). This effect may lead to completely different scaling laws: theoretical estimates predict that particle trapping close to the source is more efficient when the shock is close to the Sun (Vainio 2003).
Space Weather by Jean Lilensten