By Sandra Dawson (auth.)
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Extra info for Analysing Organisations
1 suggests that such an assumption of consensus is ill-founded, since the context in which attitudes and values develop is subject to considerable variation: by social class, by industrial sector, by educational and training experience, by position in the labour market and by regional location. Industrial psychologists have investigated the conditions under which individuals may be persuaded to change their views. One approach, developed by Fe stinger ( 1957), focused attention on the relationship between an individual's attitudes and behaviour.
It also provides an explanation of the cynical distrust and suspicions which sometimes greet managerial schemes for incentive payments. If employees doubt the sincerity of managerial pledges to fulfil their side of the employment contract and to give them promised rewards, then it is rational for them to control and restrict their performance. A serious problem can arise when some aspects of performance which are very important cannot be clearly identified and measured. For example, creativity in artwork is the output which most managers would expect from their graphic designers.
1, together with the enduring characteristics of many attitudes, mean that it is often difficult to predict from limited information about people and social contexts where attitude change will occur. 2 Motivation Motivation refers to the mainspring of behaviour; it explains why individuals choose to expend a degree of effort towards achieving particular goals. Understanding more about attitudes to work provides a partial context for understanding motivation. But this context needs to be expanded beyond individual attitudes and group pressures to include non-attitudinal factors like present life style, material commitments and assumed capabilities.
Analysing Organisations by Sandra Dawson (auth.)