By J. D. Pagan, R. J. Geor
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Additional resources for Advances in Equine Nutrition III
The 3 plexuses are drained by the medial and lateral digital veins. The Fig. 14. Three-dimensional reconstruction of a CT scanned horse’s foot with the venous circulation injected with contrast material. Note the extensive degree of anastomosis among the valveless venous plexuses. (From Pollitt CC. Anatomy and physiology of the inner hoof wall. ) Suspensory Apparatus of the Distal Phalanx deep veins within the foot are valveless, although valves occur in the more superficial coronary, subcoronary, and heel veins.
Mature corneocytes, firmly cemented together, form a tough protective barrier, preventing the passage of water and water-soluble substances inwards and the loss of body fluids, imparted by the highly vascular dermis, outwards. 12 Suspensory Apparatus of the Distal Phalanx The tubules of the equine hoof wall are not arranged randomly. 13,14 The zone of highest tubule density is the outermost layer and the density declines stepwise toward the internal lamellar layer. Because the force of impact with the ground (the ground reaction force) is transmitted proximally up the wall11 the tubule density gradient across the wall seems to be a mechanism for smooth energy transfer, from the rigid (high tubule density) outer wall to the more plastic (low tubule density) inner wall, and ultimately, via the SADP to the distal phalanx.
Is reducing the pain helpful or would it be better for the horse to seek relief by lying down and reducing the load on the laminae? My experience has proven the latter to be more helpful in recovery. I remember telling Dr Garner in the mid-1980s that I thought there was a form of laminitis that was slow coming on, in overweight horses and ponies. It started with changes in the feet that gradually got worse and worse until the horses developed a full-blown attack of clinical laminitis. On my first visit to see them, their feet had chronic changes, dropped soles, and radiographs that showed stretching of the laminae causing an unparallel dorsal hoof wall relative to the distal phalanx.
Advances in Equine Nutrition III by J. D. Pagan, R. J. Geor